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Map of Farm houses in Emilia Romagna


 

Information on Emilia Romagna


Population:

3.899.170 abitanti

Surface:

22.124

Boundaries:

In the north with Lombardy, in the east with the Adriatic Sea, in the south with Marche, Toscana and Republic of San Marino, in the west with Liguria and Piemonte.

Agriculture:

Agriculture in Emilia Romagna is one of the most progressive in Italy. The reason for this "success" is due to the wide fertile plain, and to the use of well-equipped and modern machinery. The primary produce of Emilia are wheat, maize,sugar beet and fruit; the growing of vegetables and rice is also quite wide-spread. Cattle breeding is important too. In fact this area is second only to that of Lombardia in the rearing of beef-cattle and pigs. Wine is also produced in Emilia Romagna. Sea-fisching is important and the region can boost of providing almost a fifth of the nation' s fish.

Landscapes:

The physical geographical aspect of Emilia Romagna is varied and distinctive. The territory of the region is divided into two large areas, one being hilly, and the other flat, while only a small part is muntains. The highest points in the region are the Cliffs of Bismantova (1.047 m) and mount Titan (749 m ) which rise in the Appenines, they are made of limestone which has a greater resistance to erosion compared to the surronding sail, and because of this, they seem to tower over the rest of the countryside. The vast plain which lies in the northern part of the region is the Padana, through which run several long rivers, the most important of these are the Trebbia, the Taro, the Parma, the Secchia, the Panaro and the southern tributaries of the river Po. The Reno (211 kms) is the longest river of the region, and the rivers Lamone, Sario and Marecchia flow directly into the Adriatic sea. As far as the coast of Emilia Romagna is concerned,suffice it to say that being very flat and sandy, it is inundated with summer tourists. Topography: Mountains 25% Hills 27.1% Plain 47.8%

Industry:

The industries of this region are among the most important of those of the whole of Italy - notably: textile manufacture, fashion design, and light engineering. The huge chemical plants at Ferrara and Ravenna need a special mention, and so does the enormous development of food products in Emilia whose factories produce Pasta. (Barilla), cheese Parmigiano Reggiano (parmesan) ham, mortadella and zamponi (pigs' trotters). The various engineering sectors are also worth notice; the famous car manufacturing plant of "Ferrari" at Maramello for instance, glass manufacture, pharmaceuticals and electronics too. The reason for the large industrial growth of Emilia Romagna is that alongsides the big and famous industrial concerns there are also small and medium sized factories which continue to work without stopping througout the year and the region benefits enormously from these hard working small industries. Finally, in the services sector, commerce is quite important, and tourism is very flourishing, especially on the Adriatic coast in the summer season.

Cities:

The capital of Emilia Romagna is Bologna. The city lies at the opening of valley of River Reno, at the foot of the lover Appenine Hills. Bologna has a quite and well-developed economy, especially from the industrial point of view; in fact it has factories of above average importance,such as: metallurgy, mechanics, clothing manifacture and, most of all, of food products (Bolognese pasta is very famous). While those of lesser importance are the cultivation of cereals, beet, forage and cattle raising. The most important artistic works in the city are: the Asinelli and Ciarisenda Towers,the churches of St. Domenico and St. Francesco (both built in Gothic Style) and the Bevilacqua and Bocchi Palaces. Another beautiful and important city of the region is Parma; it is situated in the centre of the strip of plain wich lies between the tall hills of the Appenine and the bed of the River Po. From the economic point of view, Parma is famous throughout all Europe for its milk and ham, while, as far as industry is concerned, those of mechanical engineering, clothing and, of course, food products are quite fluorisching. The most important monuments in the city date from the medioeval period are the Duomo and Baptistery (Battistero), the churches of the Madonna della Steccata and of St. John the Baptist (San Giovanni Battista); the XVII century Farnese Theatre and the Regio Theatre are very beautiful. One must emphasise the importance of Ravenna as a busy port and also for the contribution it makes to the agriculture. The city lying about 10 kms. from the Adriatic Sea (6 miles) and she can boast of some beautiful buildings in the surrounding area; the best known of those are: the Mausoleum of Teodorico, the church of St. Apollinaire in Classe and the Neonian Baptistery. The second city of Emilia Romagna, accoding to the number of inhabitants, is Modena. It is situated in the middle of the fertile plain between the Rivers Secchia and Panaro and is quite a well-developed commercial centre with very small but flourishing industries. The most important buildings architectuarally are the Duomo, flanked by the famous campanile called "the Ghirlandina" (90 metres or 100 yards high) and the churches of St. Philip Neri (San Filippo Neri) and St. Peter (San Pietro). On the other hand, the area of Emilia Romagna where Piacenza is situated is, for the most part, mountainous or hilly and lies in the northern most part of the region. Contrary to the other cities, the economy of Piacenza is equally divided between industry and agricolture. in fact the various products,such as pears, sugar beets and watermelons are just as important as the famous glass,mechanical engineering, chemical and food industries. The building most worthy of note are: the Duomo, the church of St. Savino and the famous Farnese Palace. Another city which has a great number of wonderful works of art to offer is Ferrara, a lovely and prosperous part of Emilia. As for the economy, it must be pointed out that the city concentrates on industrial activity, with a variety of factories involving: metallurgy , the produce of food , mechanical engineering, chemicals, and other minor industries. The agricultural side is concerned almost entirely with fruit growing. The Duomo, the Palace of Ludovic the Moor (Ludovico il Moro) , the Este Castle and the Achifonia and Diamond Palaces (Palazzo di Diamante) are the architectural evidence of the various historical periods of the city. Rimini is a very beautiful and important tourist resort on the Adriatic Coast, and has been the capital of Romagna since 1992. It goes without saying that the economy of the city rests almost exclusively on the influx of Summer tourism; although the hotel industry, food produce and fruit growing are also quite important. The city has a few notable buildings. Those that still remain are ruins from the Roman era and there are medieval palaces, the Arengo Palace and the Palace of the Podestà; there is also the church of St. Agostino. Reggio in Emilia is an important rail and road junction, and has large industries in dairy and food products, and tinned meat. Agriculture in poorly developed. The agricultural buildings to remember are the Duomo, the Cathedral, and the town (city) theatre, and the church of St. John evangelist. The last town which must be mentioned is Forlì Cesena, which became the chief city of the area in 1992 when Cesena was joined with Forlì. The economy of this city is based mainly on light engineering, textile, and food products, whereas agriculture is not so important . The only interesting buildings are the church of St. Mercuriale and the Palace of the Podestà. Touristic resorts: Rimini, Riccione, Bellaria, Cesenatico, and the Lidi Ferraresi are important seaside resorts. Salsomaggiore is well known for its spa (Thermal baths) and Bologna, Parma and Ferrara are famous for their wonderful buildings and works of art.

Characters:

Emilia Romagna has a fair number of famous people belonging to her history. We begin by talking about Luigi Galvani (1737-1798) professor of anatomy at the university of Bologna, noted for his observations on the muscle contractions of a frog when it came into contact with metal bowl; this discovery was the basis upon which Alessandro Volta invented his electric battery. Another important person connected to this region is Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937) , the scientist who made the first long distance communication, using an electro magnetic wave length. He began his research when he was still very young, and realising that he was not able to amplify this work in Italy, he moved to England where he founded the Marconi wireless telegraph Co ltd. With his considerable talents he was able to improve the apparatus so much that he was able to transmit signals between Poldher in Cornwall (England) and St. Jons in Newfoundland, demonstrating that electro magnetic waves could overcome the earth's curve. In 1908 he was awarded the nobel prize for phisics. In 1930 he became President of the Academy of Italy, and in 1935 he was awarded the chair for electro magnetic studies at Rome University. The great composer of musical operas: Giuseppe Verdi (1853-1901) made his debut at the Scala Opera house in 1839 with "Oberto the count of St. Bonifacio". Three years later he produces the beautiful and famous Nabucco, which confirmed him as one of the greatest composers of his time.Verdi's other wonderful operas, well known all over the world are; Aida, la Traviata, Rigoletto, il Trovatore and Othello, which are distinguished by the portrayal of human passion and suffering. Giovanni Pascoli (1855-1912), a famous poet born in the second half of the18th century, had passed his childhood and adolescence during the period of anarchy and Socialist Internationalism which was rife in the state at that time. After receiving his degree, Pascoli taught in different schools before taking up the post of teaching at the Carducci School in Bologna. It should be explained that the early deaths of first his father and then his mother, strongly influenced the development of his writing talent. His greatest works are the poems like "Myricae", "Canti di Castelvecchio", "Odi ed Inni" (Odes and Hymns). These poems were written in a refined technique using onomatopeiax and dialect terms. Another well known name of that time is that of the physicist and matematician Evangelista Torricelli (1608-1647) who collaborated with the great Galileo, nominated mathematician and philosopher by the Grand Duke of Toscana , Torricelli invented the Mercurial Thermometer, demonstrating that atmospheric pressure which acts on the open surface of mercury is equal to that which presses on the selfsame base of a column of mercury. Besides this, he generalised B. Cavalieri' s method of the indivisible. It only remain for us to cite Ludovico Ariosto (1474-1533) the greatest Italian poet of the Renaissance. In his youth he wrote "Elegie" (written in dialect) and "Carmina". These poems showed the influence of the latin poet Horace. Following these came the famous "Orlando Furioso" (written in the style of Orlando) "Innamorata" by Borardo, but with his own inimitable structure and forcefulness. Other important literary works are the "Satire", written in a normalistic way, and the "Negromante".

History:

In the past the region was dominated by the Ligurians and the Umbrians. Emilia Romagna enjoyed a happy period under etruscan rule, when the primitive villages of pile dwellings were transformed to elegant bribuilt cities. After this the region came under the control of the Romans (about 200 B.C.) and at the fall of Rome (476 A.D.) Emilia Romagna was divided into two regions, one in the eastern part with Ravenna as the capital and which was a dependant of the Byzanting empiror ( the Eastern Roman Empire) and a western region comprising the cities of Reggio, Parma and Piacenza came under the rule of the Eruli and the Ostragoths first, and then the Longobards. The latter were then defeated by the Franks who governed Emilia Romagna by the feudal System; later on the cities at the region, built their town halls and introduced the rule by a council of Lords. We have to recall the famous families of Este who governed the region until 1800. In 1700 Emilia Romagna was sub divided into 3 large areas : one consisted of the Duchy of Parma, (Ducato di Parma). Another, the Bourbon family : the Duchy of Modena and Reggio, il Ducato di Modena e di Reggio, and the 3rd the Duchy of Romagna, (Ducato di Romagna) which was a church State. At the beginnig of the 19th centyry Napoleon Bonaparte took over the region as the Cispadana Republic, pushing out the old Lords of Emilia. However, his dominium was brief and once again the Italian part (Romagna) came under the rule of the Church. Maria Luisa of Austria took the Duchy of Parma, ( Ducato di Parma) and Piacenza and Francesco IV of the Bourbons took the Duchy of Modena ( Ducato di Modena) and Reggio. This state of affairs lasted until 1859, when by unanimous plebiscite Emilia Romagna joined the Kingdom of Italy.

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